Development of hydrophobic reduced graphene oxide as a new efficient approach for photochemotherapy

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Mousavi S.M.
Low F.W.
Hashemi S.A.
Samsudin N.A.
Shakeri M.
Yusoff Y.
Rahsepar M.
Lai C.W.
Babapoor A.
Soroshnia S.
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Royal Society of Chemistry
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Nowadays, chemotherapy is one of the crucial and common therapies in the world. So far, it has been revealed to be highly promising, yet patients suffer from the consequences of severe negative medical dosages. In order to overcome these issues, the enhancement of photothermal chemotherapy with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a photothermal agent (PTA) is widely utilised in current medical technologies. This is due to its high near-infrared region (NIR) response, in vitro or in vivo organism biocompatibility, low risk of side effects, and effective positive results. Moreover, rGO not only has the ability to ensure that selective cancer cells have a higher mortality rate but can also improve the growth rate of recovering tissues that are untouched by necrosis and apoptosis. These two pathways are specific diverse modalities of cell death that are distinguished by cell membrane disruption and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) disintegration of the membrane via phosphatidylserine exposure in the absence of cell membrane damage. Therefore, this review aimed to demonstrate the recent achievements in the modification of rGO nanoparticles as a PTA as well as present a new approach for performing photochemotherapy in the clinical setting. � 2020 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Biocompatibility; Biomedical engineering; Cell death; Chemotherapy; Disintegration; Infrared devices; Reduced Graphene Oxide; Absence of cells; Clinical settings; Medical technologies; Membrane disruption; Near infrared region; Phosphatidylserine; Photochemotherapy; Reduced graphene oxides (RGO); Graphene