Applications of constructed wetlands and hydroponic systems in phytoremediation of wastewater

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Mustafa H.M.
Hayder G.
Solihin M.I.
Saeed R.A.
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IOP Publishing Ltd
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Increase in population and urbanisation alongside demands from agricultural sector towards meeting fresh produce needs of the growing population has put severe pressure on the available natural water sources all over the world. Thus, water is undoubtedly the most contemporary crucial resources in the world. Aquatic weed plants are generally seen as a global threat to humans and aquatic ecosystem as they cannot be wholly eliminated easily. Still, various researchers and investigations have shown that they are instrumental in the field of wastewater phytoremediation, either in constructed wetlands, open ponds or hydroponic systems in an eco-friendly and economical manner with little or no sludge waste. In view of the increasing search for an alternative source of a sustainable method for wastewater reclamation, this study presents a concise review of relevant literatures on the roles of constructed wetlands and hydroponic systems in phytoremediation of wastewater. Also in the course of this study, the authors discovered that constructed wetlands and hydroponic systems have proven to be productive in remediating an array of water quality problems, with merits over the regular wetlands and conventional methods. Nonetheless, these methods are endowed with drawbacks such as inconsistency in the absorption of contaminants, large area space requirement, over dependency on environmental conditions and energy requirement. However, we suggest the use of engineered hybrid to improve its efficiency in wastewater treatment and bioenergy generation. In the case of hydroponic systems, an alternative sustainable solar energy or devices can be used to power the systems to obtain effective results at a low cost. Additionally, further studies can be employed in the use of phytoremediation technique for synchronous remediation of wastewater and production of biomass on industrial scale. � Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.
Agricultural robots; Aquatic ecosystems; Biomass; Bioremediation; Disasters; Solar energy; Solar power generation; Sustainable development; Wastewater treatment; Water quality; Wetlands; Agricultural sector; Alternative source; Constructed wetlands; Conventional methods; Energy requirements; Environmental conditions; Hydroponic systems; Water quality problems; Wastewater reclamation