Color index of transformer oil: A low-cost measurement approach using ultraviolet-blue laser

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Hadi M.H.H.
Ker P.J.
Lee H.J.
Leong Y.S.
Hannan M.A.
Jamaludin M.Z.
Mahdi M.A.
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The color of transformer oil can be one of the first indicators determining the quality of the transformer oil and the condition of the power transformer. The current method of determining the color index (CI) of transformer oil utilizes a color comparator based on the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D1500 standard, which requires a human observer, leading to human error and a limited number of samples tested per day. This paper reports on the utilization of ultra violet-blue laser at 405-and 450-nm wavelengths to measure the CI of transformer oil. In total, 20 transformer oil samples with CI ranging from 0.5 to 7.5 were measured at optical pathlengths of 10 and 1 mm. A linear regression model was developed to determine the color index of the transformer oil. The equation was validated and verified by measuring the output power of a new batch of transformer oil samples. Data obtained from the measurements were able to quantify the CI accurately with root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) of 0.2229 for 405 nm and 0.4129 for 450 nm. This approach shows the commercialization potential of a low-cost portable device that can be used on-site for the monitoring of power transformers. � 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Costs; Linear regression; Mean square error; Oil filled transformers; Power transformers; American society for testing and material d1500; American society for testing and materials; Blue lasers; Blue wavelength; Color index; Condition; Low-cost measurements; Single wavelength; Transformer oil samples; Ultraviolet-blue wavelength; Color; human; laser; power supply; Electric Power Supplies; Humans; Lasers