Removal of basic brown 16 from aqueous solution using durian shell adsorbent, optimisation and techno-economic analysis

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Gopalakrishnan Y.
Al-Gheethi A.
Malek M.A.
Azlan M.M.
Al-Sahari M.
Radin Mohamed R.M.S.
Alkhadher S.
Noman E.
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Azo dyes including C. I. Basic Brown 16 (BB16) are one of the coloured organic compounds that have adverse effects on human health and the environment. The current work aims to optimise the adsorption of C.I BB16 in aqueous solution using durian (Durio zibethinus murray) shell as a low-cost green adsorbent. Durian shell was characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption process was optimised with response surface methodology (RSM) based on pH (4�8), time (30�240 min), durian shell dosage (0.1�1.0 g/L) and initial concentration of C.I BB16 (10�20 ppm). The removal efficiency was determined based on the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the decolourisation of C.I BB16. The techno-economic analysis was described in the current work to know the economic feasibility of durian shells as an adsorbent. The SEM images showed that durian shell adsorbent has a smooth surface with no pores. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of-C-O, =C�H, C=C,-C-O-C and O-H bonds in durian shell. Maximum decolourisation (77.6%) and COD removal (80.6%) for C.I BB16 was achieved with the interaction between pH, time and adsorbent dose and initial concentration of C.I BB16. The optimal operating factors for adsorption of C.I BB16 recorded at pH 8, time (30 min), durian shell dosage (1 g/L) and 15 mg /L of C.I BB16 concentrations were 77.61 vs. 74.26 (%) of C.I BB16 removal and 80.60 vs. 78.72 (%) of COD removal with an R2 coefficient of 0.94 at p < 0.05. The specific cost of durian shell coagulant production is USD 172.71 per ton which is lower than the market price of honeydew peels-activated carbon (HDP-AC) (USD 261.81) and the commercial market price of activated carbon which is USD 1000.00/tons. These findings indicated that the durian adsorbent provides alternative methods for treating hair dye wastewater. These findings indicated that durian shells have a high potential for the adsorption of C.I BB16 in aqueous solution. � 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
activated carbon; adsorption; aqueous solution; chemical oxygen demand; concentration (composition); dye; optimization; pollutant removal; reduction; wastewater treatment; Cucumis melo var. inodorus; Durio zibethinus