Resource recovery from waste coffee grounds using ultrasonic-assisted technology for bioenergy production

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Mofijur M.
Kusumo F.
Rizwanul Fattah I.M.
Mahmudul H.M.
Rasul M.G.
Shamsuddin A.H.
Mahlia T.M.I.
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Biodiesel is a proven alternative fuel that can serve as a substitute for petroleum diesel due to its renewability, non-toxicity, sulphur-free nature and superior lubricity. Waste-based non-edible oils are studied as potential biodiesel feedstocks owing to the focus on the valorisation of waste products. Instead of being treated as municipal waste, waste coffee grounds (WCG) can be utilised for oil extraction, thereby recovering an energy source in the form of biodiesel. This study evaluates oil extraction from WCG using ultrasonic and Soxhlet techniques, followed by biodiesel conversion using an ultrasonic-assisted transesterification process. It was found that n-hexane was the most effective solvent for the oil extraction process and ultrasonic-assisted technology offers a 13.5% higher yield compared to the conventional Soxhlet extraction process. Solid-to-solvent ratio and extraction time of the oil extraction process from the dried waste coffee grounds (DWCG) after the brewing process was optimised using the response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that predicted yield of 17.75 wt. % of coffee oil can be obtained using 1:30 w/v of the mass ratio of DWCG-ton-hexane and 34 min of extraction time when 32% amplitude was used. The model was verified by the experiment where 17.23 wt. % yield of coffee oil was achieved when the extraction process was carried out under optimal conditions. The infrared absorption spectrum analysis of WCG oil determined suitable functional groups for biodiesel conversion which was further treated using an ultrasonic-assisted transesterification process to successfully convert to biodiesel. � 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Absorption spectroscopy; Biodiesel; Hexane; Light absorption; Organic solvents; Spectrum analysis; Transesterification; Biodiesel feedstock; Bioenergy productions; Extraction process; Optimal conditions; Response surface methodology; Solid to solvent ratios; Soxhlet techniques; Transesterification process; Solvent extraction