A Systematic Review on the Energy Efficiency of Dynamic Clustering in a Heterogeneous Environment of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

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Alomari M.F.
Mahmoud M.A.
Ramli R.
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There are a variety of applications for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), such as military, health monitoring systems, natural disasters, smartphones, and other surveillance systems. While the primary purpose of sensor nodes is to collect unattended data in hostile environments, many are placed in large numbers and operate independently. Due to limited capabilities, power is often limited. Therefore, these nodes are grouped into clusters to increase communication efficiency. In WSNs, two different routing protocols are possible: apartment and hierarchical or clustering protocols. Due to their significant role in minimizing energy consumption, hierarchical methods have become very popular in clustering. In cluster-based methods, nodes are organized into clusters, and the sensor node with the most resources is appointed as the cluster head (CH). In this paper, we present a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) explaining the difficulties in developing cluster-based methods, critical factors for clustering, and hierarchical clustering protocols. The most important factor of a routing protocol for WSN is the energy consumption and lifetime of a network. Focusing on energy consumption, different cluster-based methods were analyzed to determine which technology should be deployed by analyzing specific criteria to support the selection process. Additionally, the pros and cons of different protocols are listed with their relevance in specific scenarios. To identify these protocols, a systematic literature review was conducted using research studies published from 2010 to 2021, with 30 papers analyzed in the final phase. Based on the results of this SLR, several issues need to be further investigated with respect to the interaction of the potential technology with the Internet of Things (IoT) and Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs). � 2022 by the authors.