Second generation bioethanol production: A critical review

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Aditiya H.B.
Mahlia T.M.I.
Chong W.T.
Nur H.
Sebayang A.H.
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Elsevier Ltd
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It is a popular fact that the world's dependency on fossil fuel has caused unfavourable effects, including lessening crude oil reserve, decreasing air quality, rising global temperature, unpredictable weather change, and so on. As the effort to promote sustainability and independency from fossil fuel, bioethanol is now favoured as the blend or fossil petrol substitute. However, the feedstock functionality of first generation bioethanol production is restricted due to its edibleness since it would clash the feeding purpose. Second generation bioethanol production fulfils the impractical gap of first generation since it employs non-edible feedstock sourced from agriculture and forestry wastes. Lignocellulosic and starchy materials in them are convertible to fermentable sugars that are able to be further processed, resulting anhydrous bioethanol as the end product. This paper critically reviews the existing variance of second generation bioethanol production methodologies, namely pre-treatment, hydrolysis, fermentation and distillation, as well as the worth of second generation production for future reference. The discussions in this paper are also fit as the fundamental for feasible planning of second generation bioethanol production plant. � 2016
Agricultural wastes; Agriculture; Air quality; Crude oil; Distillation; Ethanol; Feedstocks; Forestry; Fossil fuels; Petroleum deposits; Proven reserves; Bio-ethanol production; Critical review; Crude oil reserves; Fermentable sugars; Global temperatures; Lignocellulosic biomass; Second generation; Second generation bioethanol; Bioethanol